In this section you will learn about GET Method, what is it, its benefits, components with some real world examples.
What is GET Method?
GET is one of the HTTP methods used to send requests to a server. It's primarily used to retrieve data from a server, and it is designed to be safe, idempotent, and cacheable. The GET method requests a representation of the specified resource. In simple terms,
GET is like asking the server, "Can you give me the information located at this particular URL?"
Principles of GET Method
Idempotent: GET is an idempotent method, which means that making multiple identical requests should produce the same result every time until another method changes the resource.
For example, consider a URL
GET /api/books/1. No matter how many times you send this GET request, the response should remain the same unless another method changes the resource. This is like asking for a page in a book; the page remains the same no matter how many times you ask for it.
Safe: In a RESTful API, the GET method is considered safe because it does not modify the requested resource. It only retrieves data, making it a read-only operation.
In this example, sending a
GET request to
/api/users should not cause any side-effect on the server. It's similar to reading a list but not making any changes to it.
Of course, depending on the implementation of the application/API, there are instances where GET requests are used to write instead of read. In this case, parameters are passed in the URL. It is generally considered to be best practice to use other HTTP methods like
PUT instead when modifying data.
Cacheable: Responses to GET requests are cacheable by default, unless directives indicate otherwise. This can help to improve performance and reduce server load.
Cache-Control header indicates that the response can be cached for up to 3600 seconds. Caching is like keeping a copy of the page so you don't have to ask for it again soon.
Benefits of GET Method?
GET is the fundamental method used to retrieve resources from servers. It's simple, efficient, and widely used in web services to fetch data. It's like the default way of asking servers for information.
Simplicity: GET requests are simple to create and handle, making them a cornerstone of web services.
Efficiency: With caching enabled, GET requests can significantly improve the performance of web applications by reducing the server load.
Transparency: GET requests can be bookmarked, shared, and even indexed by search engines, making them transparent and easily shareable.
How does GET Work?
The GET method operates in a straightforward manner:
Client Sends a Request
The client sends an HTTP request to the server with the GET method, specifying the resource's URI.
In this step, it's like you are asking the server for a specific book.
Server Processes the Request
The server processes the request, retrieves the requested resource, and prepares the response. It's like the server is finding the book you asked for.
Server Sends a Response to the Client
The server sends an HTTP response to the client, containing the representation of the requested resource.
Now, the server gives you the book information you requested.
What is a GET Request?
A GET request is composed of several components:
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): The URI identifies the resource the client wants to retrieve. For example:
/api/books/1. Think of the URI as the address where the information is stored.
Method: The HTTP method, which in this case is
GET. This is your action of asking.
Headers: HTTP headers allow the client to pass additional information about the request and about itself, to the server. For example, the
Acceptheader tells the server the format the client prefers for the response.
Headers are like additional preferences you specify when asking for information.
Parameters: Parameters can be included in the URI to filter or customize the request. For example:
/api/books?author=Harper+Lee. Parameters are additional details that help narrow down your request.
GET Request Example
GET requests are used to retrieve data from a server. Here are some examples showing how GET requests can be used:
Retrieving a List of Items:
This GET request retrieves a list of books from the server. It's like asking for a catalog of books.
Retrieving a Specific Item:
This GET request retrieves the book with ID 1 from the server. It's like asking for a specific book from the catalog.
This GET request retrieves all books written by Harper Lee from the server. It's like asking for all books by a specific author from the catalog.
Security Considerations for GET
Using the GET method in HTTP requests is generally safe when retrieving data, but there are security considerations to be aware of when including sensitive information:
Data Exposure: Data in GET requests are visible in the URL, making them vulnerable to exposure. For instance, a URL like
GET /api/search?query=sensitiveKeywordcould leak
sensitiveKeywordin server logs or browser history.
Limited Data Length: The length of a URL is constrained (commonly up to 2048 characters), which limits the amount of data that can be sent. This can be problematic for complex queries.
Non-secure: Data in GET requests can be less secure compared to POST requests, where data is placed in the body of the request and not displayed in the URL.
POST with the body containing sensitive information:
No Modification: GET requests should be idempotent and not cause changes to the server state. For example, avoid
GET /api/deleteUser?id=123, as this could lead to accidental deletions if the URL is prefetched or revisited.
Caching and Bookmarking: GET responses are cacheable, which is great for performance but risky for sensitive data. Use cache control headers to prevent caching where necessary.
Sensitive Data: Do not include sensitive data like passwords or personal identification numbers in a GET request. Use POST instead and ensure the data is within the body of the request, not the URL.
Example with inline code: Use
POST /api/logininstead of
Server-Side Controls: Always implement server-side checks to verify that no sensitive information is returned without proper authorization, even when a GET request is made.
Use HTTPS: To protect the data transmitted in GET requests, use HTTPS to encrypt the connection.
Example with inline code: Ensure the endpoint is
Limit Logging: Configure server logging to exclude parameters from GET requests to prevent sensitive data from being stored in logs.
While the GET method is effective for data retrieval, handling it with care is essential, particularly when dealing with sensitive information.
The GET method is an essential part of the HTTP protocol, facilitating the retrieval of resources from servers. Its simplicity, efficiency, and idempotent nature make it a reliable choice for developers when fetching data.